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James Cruz
James Cruz

The Basics Of Biology

[And if you're serious about learning biology to pass an exam, whether at high school, college, or beyond, check out Brainscape's user-generated and expert-curated biology flashcards. Our spaced repetition web and mobile flashcards will help you master the facts twice as efficiently as any study method!]

The Basics of Biology

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So, there you have 15 extraordinary human biology facts you can use to impress (or gross-out) your next date. Understanding it not only gives you the academic foundation you need to enter a career in medicine or science, but it also helps you interpret and take better care of your body.

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In general, application assignment to the basic science focused BBHV versus the more translational panels IVPP, AVI, HTBT, MPPA, MPPB is driven largely by the weight of the approach. Applications applying standard approaches to address questions of therapeutics, disease progression or pathophysiology would go to the more translational panel. Applications addressing fundamental studies in these areas that require expertise in structural biology, cell biology, genetics, imaging or biomechanics to evaluate go to BBHV.

BBHV and Hemostasis, Thrombosis, Blood Cells and Transfusion Study Section (HTBT) have shared interests in blood research. Applications that involve the mechanism of action, the involvement of blood cells in disease and all transfusion related applications are reviewed in HTBT. Applications that emphasize basic blood cell biology, structure or omics are reviewed in BBHV.

BBHV and Development-1 and 2 (DEV 1, DEV2) have shared interests in stem cell biology. Applications that empathize stem cell fate studies in cardiac, blood and vascular cells or hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are typically assigned to BBHV.

'Synthetic biology' is a term that defies easy definition. It can mean different things to different people, but the common underlying need is a toolbox of well-defined genetic parts to build new functions.

The goals of today's synthetic biology are ambitious, ranging from the production of drugs and their targeted delivery and dosage, to biofuel, tissue engineering and genomically recoded organisms. Although synthetic biology has not lived up to early expectations, progress has been made on all these fronts. One of the best-known examples is the semisynthetic production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin with engineered yeast, spearheaded by Jay Keasling of University of California, Berkeley.

In a Commentary (p. 495), James Attwater and Philipp Holliger show that synthetic biology is also relevant for addressing basic biological questions. They discuss how it can assist in understanding the origins of life.

This complex pathologic process may reflect the developmental origins of the kidney. Thus, the entire epithelium of the kidney, including the tubular epithelial cells, is derived from the intermediate mesoderm during the development of the urogenital system. More specifically, a mesenchyme condenses over the ureteric bud (derived from the endoderm) to give rise to the glomerular and tubular epithelial structures of the kidney (54), doing so via a MET. This hints at a peculiar aspect of renal biology: by retaining some imprint of their mesenchymal origins, kidney epithelial cells may be particularly prone to return to this state, via the EMTs that occur in response to inflammatory stress and lead to pathologic fibrosis (55, 56).

The Basic Molecular Biology eLearning Series provides online training for public health and clinical laboratory professionals by introducing the scientific background for molecular diagnosis, the principles of molecular biology laboratory practice, and common methods. Each course consists of interactive, concise content allowing for completion during open periods throughout the day. The basic Molecular Biology series includes four eLearning courses: Basic Science, Laboratory Practice, Nucleic Acid Extraction, and PCR and Real-Time PCR.

The UAB Nathan Shock Center of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging provides services, resources, consultation, and training for investigators performing research on the basic biology of aging. The Center exists to assist scientists in pursuing research focused on the interplay of aging, comparative biology, and energetics. Its goal is to act as a multiplier to stimulate innovation and increase the success of scientists studying the basic biology of aging.

The Division of Cancer Biology (DCB) supports basic research in all areas of cancer biology at academic institutions and research foundations across the United States. As part of the National Cancer Institute, DCB provides funding for research that investigates the basic biology behind cancer.

Research in the field of basic cancer biology focuses on the mechanisms that underlie fundamental processes such as cell growth, the transformation of normal cells to cancer cells, and the spread, or metastasis, of cancer cells. This research provides the building blocks to new treatments, clinical trials, and improved understanding of the disease. Basic research has enabled much of the progress made over the years in the search for a cure for cancer.

Deeper examination of this aspect of aGvHD biology and its associated pathways is crucial because it represents a less commonly pursued paradigm in aGvHD treatment: fostering recovery of damaged tissues (Figure 1).91

As the epigenetics of aGvHD biology is a young area of study, there is much room for further investigation, both in elucidating mechanisms surrounding the action of known enzymes and in exploring the roles of new regulators documented here and beyond. Nevertheless, enormous progress has been made through the identification of critical enzymes and mechanisms. Next steps will be to further map how their pathways intersect amid the multitude of cell types and interactions that comprise aGvHD. Some epigenetic regulators (e.g., EZH2 and HDAC6) have points of commonality in their mechanisms of action (via HSP90).19,33,37 Advances will illuminate these locations of confluence such that more effective, integrated therapies may be developed. Additionally, a single regulator (e.g., HDAC11) may have beneficial or detrimental effects at different stages of cell development; understanding these situations will be vital for treatment. Also bringing promise for epigenetic intervention are those aspects of aGvHD pathogenesis that are T-cellindependent, such as microbiome injury.

Applicants for this training grant program need to describe an interdisciplinary program that integrates training in the conceptual models, methods and approaches of both behavioral and biomedical sciences. This should be a joint effort between the faculty and leadership of departments from both sides of this interface which could include, but is not limited to, departments of psychology, anthropology, behavior, demography and economics on the behavioral side, and departments of biology, physiology, cellular and/or molecular biology, pharmacology, neuroscience, biochemistry, biophysics, immunology, genetics, and biomedical engineering on the biomedical side. One of the main challenges in this training program is to bridge scientific cultural differences between disciplines. The program is sufficiently flexible to allow applicant institutions to tailor their proposed training program to take advantage of the resources available to them and the areas of strength at their institutions.

Applicants for a predoctoral institutional training grant in biostatistics must describe an interdisciplinary program that is built on a strong foundation in statistical theory and methodology and that provides a clear understanding of basic biological research. Applications should address any challenges of melding two disparate cultures, statistics and biology, at both the faculty and student levels, and how these challenges will be overcome.

Applications for a training grant in computational biology, bioinformatics, and data science should address the challenges of melding two disparate cultures, computing and biology, at both the faculty and student levels. These challenges include:

Typical programs bring together departments of chemistry, physics and those offering training in the various areas of biology. Students commonly work in several areas, including structural biology, the biophysical characterization of biological macromolecules, single molecule detection and electron microscopy. To successfully bridge the gap between the biological and physical disciplines, interaction among faculty and students through planned activities is essential. These activities commonly include rotations among a variety of disciplines and departments, journal clubs and seminar series. Mobility of students among the participating departments is an important feature, as is career guidance and monitoring throughout the students' education, even beyond participation on the training grant.

NIGMS encourages PIs who wish to have a training program in the pharmacological sciences to emphasize training in quantitative approaches to drug discovery and development. Programs must emphasize training in various -omic technologies, quantitative molecular models, and the connections of these -omic technologies and models to animal and human physiology and pathophysiology. Furthermore, trainees should receive fundamental training in the principles of pharmacokinetics as well as the basics of chemistry to understand structure-activity relationships. Training in additional areas of pharmacology that may contribute to the greater understanding or improvements in therapeutic efficacy or reduction in adverse effects, such as pharmacogenomics, are encouraged. Involvement of students in human clinical pharmacology and translational research is also highly encouraged. Because of the reliance of pharmacology on physiological principles, formal instruction or a background in organ physiology is required. Since pharmacology is an interdisciplinary science, areas in which students may conduct research include, but are not limited to: biochemistry, chemistry, structural biology, neurobiology, immunology, microbiology, cancer biology, developmental sciences, experimental therapeutics and various medical specialties (e.g., anesthesiology, psychiatry, cardiovascular research, gastroenterology, etc.). 041b061a72


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