Pakistan Studies by Gul Shahzad Sarwar.pdf: A Comprehensive and Updated Source of Information on Pakistan Affairs
Pakistan Studies by Gul Shahzad Sarwar: A Comprehensive Guide to Pakistan Affairs
Pakistan Studies is a subject that covers the history, culture, politics, economy, society and foreign relations of Pakistan. It is an essential part of the curriculum for students in schools, colleges and universities in Pakistan. It is also a compulsory subject for the candidates who appear for the Central Superior Services (CSS) exam, which is a competitive exam for recruitment in the civil service of Pakistan.
Pakistan Studies By Gul Shahzad Sarwar.pdfl
However, finding a reliable, comprehensive and updated source of information on Pakistan Studies is not an easy task. Many books on this subject are either outdated, biased or incomplete. That is why Gul Shahzad Sarwar, a renowned scholar, author and teacher of Pakistan Studies, has written a book that fills this gap. His book, Pakistan Studies by Gul Shahzad Sarwar.pdf, is a masterpiece that covers all aspects of Pakistan Affairs in a lucid, concise and analytical manner.
In this article, we will review this book and highlight its main features and benefits. We will also provide a brief overview of each chapter of the book, along with some key facts and figures. By the end of this article, you will have a clear idea of what this book offers and why you should buy it.
The Historical Background of Pakistan
The first chapter of the book deals with the historical background of Pakistan, from the ancient times to the modern era. It traces the origins, evolution and achievements of various civilizations, cultures and empires that existed in the region that now constitutes Pakistan. It also examines the factors that led to the emergence of Pakistan as a separate nation-state in 1947. Some of the main topics covered in this chapter are:
The Indus Valley Civilization and its legacy: The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the oldest and most advanced civilizations in the world, which flourished in the Indus river basin from 2500 BCE to 1500 BCE. It had a well-developed urban planning, sanitation, trade, writing, art and religion. It left behind a rich cultural and archaeological heritage, such as the cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, the seals, the pottery and the figurines.
The Muslim rule in India and its impact: The Muslim rule in India began with the invasion of Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 CE, who conquered Sindh and established the Umayyad Caliphate in the region. The Muslim rule continued for over a thousand years, under various dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, the Ghurids, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals and the Durrani Empire. The Muslim rule brought political unity, cultural diversity, religious tolerance, administrative reforms, architectural marvels and literary excellence to India. It also paved the way for the spread of Islam and the development of a distinct Muslim identity in India.
The British colonialism and its consequences: The British colonialism in India began with the establishment of the East India Company in 1600 CE, which gradually expanded its trade and political influence over India. The British colonialism reached its peak after the defeat of the Mughals in 1857 CE, when India came under the direct rule of the British Crown. The British colonialism had a profound impact on India's economy, society, culture, education and politics. It also led to the exploitation, oppression and resistance of the Indian people.
The Pakistan Movement and its leaders: The Pakistan Movement was a nationalist movement that aimed to create a separate homeland for the Muslims of India, based on the two-nation theory. The Pakistan Movement was led by various leaders such as Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan and others. The Pakistan Movement gained momentum after the formation of the Muslim League in 1906 CE, which became the representative party of the Muslims of India. The Pakistan Movement reached its climax after the Lahore Resolution in 1940 CE, which demanded a separate state for the Muslims of India.
The Partition of India and its aftermath: The Partition of India was a result of the failure of the British government and the Indian leaders to reach a consensus on a constitutional solution for India's independence. The Partition of India was announced by Lord Mountbatten on June 3, 1947 CE, which divided India into two dominions: India and Pakistan. The Partition of India was accompanied by massive violence, displacement and migration of millions of people across the borders. The Partition of India also created several disputes and conflicts between India and Pakistan, such as Kashmir, water-sharing, refugees and minorities.
The Constitutional Development of Pakistan
The second chapter of the book deals with the constitutional development of Pakistan, from 1947 to present. It analyzes the various attempts to frame a constitution for Pakistan that would reflect its ideological foundations, political aspirations and social realities. It also evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of each constitution that was adopted or abrogated in Pakistan's history. Some of the main topics covered in this chapter are:
The Objectives Resolution and its significance: The Objectives Resolution was a resolution passed by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on March 12, 1949 CE, which laid down the basic principles and objectives for framing a constitution for Pakistan. The Objectives Resolution declared that sovereignty belongs to Allah alone, that Pakistan shall be an Islamic republic, that fundamental rights shall be guaranteed to all citizens, that minorities shall be protected and that democracy shall be practiced. The Objectives Resolution is considered as the magna carta of Pakistan's constitutional history.
The 1956 Constitution and its salient features: The 1956 Constitution was the first constitution of Pakistan that was adopted by kander Ayub Khan on October 7, 1958 CE.
The 1962 Constitution and its drawbacks: The 1962 Constitution was the second constitution of Pakistan that was promulgated by President Ayub Khan on June 8, 1962 CE. The 1962 Constitution established a presidential system of government with a unicameral legislature (National Assembly), abolished provincial autonomy and created two provinces (West Pakistan and East Pakistan), curtailed fundamental rights and judicial independence, and introduced the Basic Democracies system as a form of local government. The 1962 Constitution was widely criticized for being authoritarian, centralist and undemocratic. The 1962 Constitution was abrogated by President Yahya Khan on March 25, 1969 CE.
The 1973 Constitution and its achievements: The 1973 Constitution was the third and current constitution of Pakistan that was adopted by the National Assembly on April 10, 1973 CE. The 1973 Constitution restored Pakistan as an Islamic republic, established a parliamentary system of government with a bicameral legislature (National Assembly and Senate), granted provincial autonomy and created four provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), ensured fundamental rights and judicial independence, and recognized Urdu as the national language and other languages as provincial languages. The 1973 Constitution was hailed as a consensus document that reflected the aspirations of the people of Pakistan. The 1973 Constitution was suspended by General Zia-ul-Haq on July 5, 1977 CE and by General Pervez Musharraf on November 3, 2007 CE, but was later restored by popular movements.
The constitutional amendments and their implications: The constitutional amendments are changes or additions to the original text of the constitution that are made by the parliament or a referendum. The constitutional amendments are meant to update, improve or modify the constitution according to the changing needs and circumstances of the country. So far, there have been twenty-five constitutional amendments in Pakistan's history, some of which have been positive and some negative. Some of the major constitutional amendments are: the Eighth Amendment (1985) that gave the president the power to dissolve the National Assembly; the Thirteenth Amendment (1997) that revoked this power; the Seventeenth Amendment (2003) that restored this power; the Eighteenth Amendment (2010) that abolished this power and devolved more powers to the provinces; and the Twenty-fifth Amendment (2018) that merged the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The Political System of Pakistan
The third chapter of the book deals with the political system of Pakistan, from 1947 to present. It explores the various forms and phases of government that have been practiced in Pakistan, such as democracy, dictatorship, martial law and caretaker government. It also examines the various institutions and actors that are involved in the political process, such as the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, the military, the bureaucracy, the political parties, the media and the civil society. Some of the main topics covered in this chapter are:
The parliamentary democracy and its challenges: The parliamentary democracy is a form of government in which the executive is accountable to the legislature, which represents the will of the people. The parliamentary democracy is based on principles such as rule of law, separation of powers, checks and balances, free and fair elections, multiparty system and opposition. The parliamentary democracy has been practiced in Pakistan intermittently since its inception, but has faced many challenges such as political instability, corruption, nepotism, rigging, horse-trading and defections.
The military dictatorship and its effects: The military dictatorship is a form of government in which the military takes over the power by force or coup d'etat, suspends or abrogates the constitution, imposes martial law or emergency rule, bans political activities and curbs civil liberties. The military dictatorship has been practiced in Pakistan four times since its inception: by General Ayub Khan (1958-1969), by General Zia-ul-Haq (1977-1988), by General Pervez Musharraf (1999-2008) and by General Raheel Sharif (2014-2016). The military dictatorship has had mixed effects on Pakistan's economy, society, culture and foreign policy.
The civil-military relations and their dynamics: The civil-military relations are the relations between the civilian government and the military establishment in a country. The civil-military relations are influenced by factors such as the historical legacy, the constitutional framework, the political culture, the security environment and the external pressures. The civil-military relations in Pakistan have been complex, tense and often strained, due to the frequent interventions of the military in politics, the dominance of the military in national affairs, the distrust and rivalry between the civilian and military leaders, and the lack of civilian oversight and control over the military.
The political parties and their roles: The political parties are organized groups of people who share common interests, ideologies and agendas, and who seek to gain or influence power through elections or other means. The political parties play an important role in a democratic system, such as representing the people, forming the government, making policies, providing opposition, mobilizing public opinion and ensuring accountability. The political parties in Pakistan have been diverse, dynamic and often divided, due to factors such as regionalism, ethnicity, religion, personality cults and external influences. Some of the major political parties in Pakistan are: Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, Muttahida Qaumi Movement, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Fazlur Rehman), Awami National Party and Jamaat-e-Islami.
The electoral system and its reforms: The electoral system is the system of rules and procedures that governs how elections are conducted and how votes are counted and translated into seats or offices. The electoral system affects the quality and outcome of democracy, such as the representation, participation, competition and accountability of the political actors. The electoral system in Pakistan has been based on the first-past-the-post or simple majority system, which has been criticized for being unfair, unrepresentative and prone to manipulation. The electoral system in Pakistan has also been marred by issues such as electoral violence, rigging, malpractices, irregularities and controversies. The electoral system in Pakistan has been subject to various reforms and recommendations by various commissions, committees and experts.
The Economic Development of Pakistan
The fourth chapter of the book deals with the economic development of Pakistan, from 1947 to present. It analyzes the performance, potential and problems of various sectors of Pakistan's economy, such as agriculture, industry, services, trade and finance. It also evaluates the policies, plans and programs that have been adopted or implemented by various governments to promote economic growth, stability and welfare in Pakistan. Some of the main topics covered in this chapter are:
land degradation, climate change, pests and diseases, market distortions and subsidies.
The industrial sector and its opportunities: The industrial sector is the engine of Pakistan's economy, as it contributes about 20% to the GDP, employs about 22% of the labor force and generates about 60% of the exports. The industrial sector consists of manufacturing (such as textiles, leather, cement and chemicals), mining (such as coal, natural gas and minerals), construction (such as roads, bridges and buildings) and electricity (such as hydro, thermal and nuclear). The industrial sector offers many opportunities such as value addition, diversification, innovation, employment and foreign exchange.
The service sector and its potential: The service sector is the largest and fastest growing sector of Pakistan's economy, as it contributes about 61% to the GDP, employs about 36% of the labor force and accounts for about 40% of the exports. The service sector consists of various sub-sectors such as transport (such as railways, roads and airways), communication (such as telephones, internet and media), finance (such as banking, insurance and stock exchange), trade (such as wholesale, retail and e-commerce), education (such as schools, colleges and universities), health (such as hospitals, clinics and pharmacies) and tourism (such as hotels, restaurants and attractions). The service sector has a huge potential to enhance economic growth, social development and human capital in Pakistan.
The foreign trade and its prospects: The foreign trade is the exchange of goods and services between Pakistan and other countries. The foreign trade affects the balance of payments, the exchange rate, the foreign reserves and the external debt of Pakistan. The foreign trade consists of exports (such as textiles, rice, leather, sports goods and surgical instruments) and imports (such as oil, machinery, chemicals, food items and consumer goods). The foreign trade faces many challenges such as trade deficit, low competitiveness, high tariffs, non-tariff barriers and regional integration.
unsustainable debt burden, inefficient public sector enterprises and weak fiscal management.
The Social Development of Pakistan
The fifth chapter of the book deals with the social development of Pakistan, from 1947 to present. It assesses the progress, potential and problems of various indicators of human development, such as population, education, health, media and culture. It also reviews the policies, plans and programs that have been adopted or implemented by various governments to improve the quality of life, the standard of living and the social welfare of the people of Pakistan. Some of the main topics covered in this chapter are:
The population growth and its implications: The population growth is the increase in the number of people living in a country over time. The population growth affects the availability and distribution of resources, the demand and supply of goods and services, the environment and the social structure of a country. The population growth in Pakistan has been rapid, as it rose from 32.5 million in 1947 to 207.8 million in 2017. The population growth in Pakistan has had positive and negative implications, such as a large labor force, a large market, a high dependency ratio, a high poverty rate and a high pressure on infrastructure.
The education system and its shortcomings: The education system is the system of institutions, policies and practices that provide learning opportunities to the people of a country. The education system affects the human capital, the economic productivity, the social mobility and the civic participation of a country. The education system in Pakistan has been based on a colonial legacy, a religious influence and a federal structure. The education system in Pakistan has faced many shortcomings such as low enrollment, high dropout, poor quality, low equity, low relevance and low governance.
The health system and its improvements: The health system is the system of institutions, policies and practices that provide health care services to the people of a country. The health system affects the physical well-being, the mental well-being, the life expectancy and the mortality rate of a country. The health system in Pakistan has been based on a primary health care approach, a public-private partnership model and a devolved structure. The health system in Pakistan has witnessed some improvements such as increased immunization, reduced infant mortality, improved maternal health and expanded health coverage.
dynamic and influential, but has also faced some challenges such as censorship, propaganda, sensationalism and fake news.
The culture and its diversity: The culture is the set of values, beliefs, customs, traditions and practices that characterize the people of a country. The culture reflects the history, geography, religion and ethnicity of a country. The culture influences the identity, behavior, attitude and outlook of the people of a country. The culture in Pakistan has been rich, diverse and vibrant, but has also been subject to some threats such as intolerance, extremism, violence and globalization.
The Foreign Policy of Pakistan
The sixth and final chapter of the book deals with the foreign policy of Pakistan, from 1947 to present. It explores the goals, principles and strategies that guide Pakistan's relations with other countries and international organizations. It also examines the major issues, challenges and opportunities that shape Pakistan's foreign policy in various regions and domains. Some of the main topics covered in this chapter are:
The basic principles and objectives of foreign policy: The basic principles and objectives of foreign policy are the fundamental values and interests that determine the direction and purpose of a country's external relations. The basic principles and objectives of Pakistan's foreign policy are derived from its ideology, geography, history and economy. Some of the basic principles and objectives of Pakistan's foreign policy are: to safeguard its sovereignty, security and territorial integrity; to promote its national interest and well-being; to uphold its Islamic identity and values; to foster friendly and cooperative relations with other countries; to support the c